The purpose of this paper is to present evidence on the educational and labour market status of young Indigenous Australians as reported in the 1991 Census, to build on similar work relating to 1986, and to provide information on the changes which have taken place between the two Census years. The data show that while there have been significant improvements in the educational levels of young Indigenous Australians, they remain behind those of other Australian youth. The evidence also shows that Indigenous youth were disadvantaged in the labour market; they were less likely to be in employment and more likely to be unemployed than other Australian youth. However, between 1986 and 1991, when conditions deteriorated in the Australian labour market in general, Indigenous youth experienced some growth in employment and a reduction in unemployment, the reverse of the patterns for other Australian youth. The important role of programs specific to Indigenous people in creating this result is discussed in the conclusion.